City profile- Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar is the capital Orissa, located along the Chennai – Kolkata National Highway (NH-5), it forms the apex of the “Golden Triangle” with Konark and Puri. The city functions as administrative capital with sustained growth in tertiary economic activities3. Major economic activities of the city are trade and commerce, tourism-related activities and industrial activities.

Bhubaneswar islocated at 85o44‘ to 85o 55‘E & 20o 12‘to 20o25‘N in eastern part of the India, at an elevation of 45 metres above mean sea level. The climate of Bhubaneswar is tropical; temperature varies from 12oc to 43oc. Annual rain fallis 1542 mm and highest monthly rainfall is 330mm.

Location and regional setting

Bhubaneswar a capital of Orissa, is one of the key urban centers of India. The Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation (BMC) covers an area of 135 square kilometer (2012) witha population of 8, 38,837 (as per provisional Census, 2011).The holy town ofPuri is only accessible from Bhubaneswar. The riverine system of Mahanadi andits tributaries has restricted growth of eastern part of Bhubaneswar. The largeforest of Chandaka has restricted growth of Bhubaneswar towards west. Being the focal point of religious-tourism,the city handles large volume of inter-city and inter-regional traffic. 

Primary activities like agriculture and livestock breeding are limited to the rural pockets of Bhubaneswar development authority area. Secondary activities like manufacturing industries are also lacking due to lack of adequate incentives. Tertiary Sector activities are the major economic activities within the region- primarily trade and commerce aswell as service sector activities. IT and ITES are the new upcoming economic activities which may give a boost to the economic development of BDPA.

 Demographic profile

The population in the BMC limits increased to 0.838 million in 2011 from 0.64 million in 2001 (BMC,2012) with compound growth rate of 2.61%.The population density for BMC area is62 persons per hectare. However, if we consider only the developed area, the density figure shoots upto  89 persons / hectare.


Table 16.2-1:Demographic Profile

Jurisdiction Boundaries


BMC Area


Population (BMC – 2011)


Decadal growth rate


Population density (BMC-2011)

62 pph

BDA Area


Bhubaneswar Planning Development Area (BDPA) is divided in four administrative units, BMC, Khurdha, Jatni and BDA rural.



Population Density (BDA)

37.5 pph

*Comprehensive Development Plan Projections/ ** Provisional Census, 2011


As mentioned above the city thrives on tertiary activities, However the city is also experiencing some transformation in the recent years with major investments in food and allied sectors, Engineering and Metal based manufacturing activities along with Chemical and allied processing activities. The region holds 42% of the total investment in Electrical and Electronic goods manufacturing followed by pape rand paper based products. Small scale industries are concentrated in Bhubaneswar city. There is an industrial park in Bhubaneswar, renamed as “Infocity”, and has open the doors for establishment of IT sector. Another ITSEZ is also proposed within Bhubaneswar development region.

Since Bhubaneswar is a state capital, and most of the state level administrative functions are located in Bhubaneswar. Concentration of state or district level administrative functions provides ample opportunity for public service employment as well as pull of semi-public / private offices and institutions to locate in proximity to the state capital functions thus inducing more institutional functions.

In recent times, Bhubaneswar has experienced rapid growth in retail trade and commerce with most of its growth in organised retail segment. The spur in retail functions in Bhubaneswar has been primarily due to rapid growth in local city level demand and change in consumption and preference of its population. In recent years Bhubaneswar has emerged as regional hub of health and educational services catering to the demand of Orissa and also to the neighboring states.

Engineering colleges, medical colleges, hotel management institutions, research institutes, technical training institutes and other higher order educational facilities has transformed the city into an educational hub. Several such initiatives are also in pipeline which will strengthen the image further. Growth of real estate activities has also led to boom in building construction and building material manufacturing activities. Real estate development has been rapid along the Nandankanan road,NH-5, Cuttack-Puri Road ( Rasulgarh to Ravi Talkies andbeyond).

This region is not only endowed but also surrounded with rich historical and cultural heritage. Huge influx of domestic and international tourists can be observed all-round the year which has led to rapid proliferation of tourism enabled service sector. Bhubaneswar acts as a hub for the tourist destinations(spokes) located within the adjoining catchment area within 100 km radius.

Urban transport scenario

 Existing urban transport scenario

 Road network

Bhubaneswar is linked with Puri via Cuttack – Puri Road (NH-203) and this NH is cutting across the city in congested human settlements. High level of congestion has been observedon NH-203 due to mixing of local traffic with regional traffic. Intercity interaction happens between Cuttack and Bhubaneswar also through NH-5 and Nandankanan road and Barang Road.

Old town area of Bhubaneswar has single carriageway roads, with limited Right of Ways (ROW)which limits road capacity and scope of expansion. Old town area has higher usage of pedestrian and slow moving vehicles resulting into congestion.

Overall Bhubaneswar has grid iron type of road network; it has hierarchical system of collector and local roads.The road network in new developed areas are very well planned, areas which are catering IT parks, education/health campus developments, and residential townships along NH-5 and Nandankanan road.


Nearly 4/5th of the vehicle stock in Bhubaneswar comprises of two wheelers and the numbers are growing at a rate of 24 percent per annum. The vehicle registration records are as per March, 2012 shows that there are total 592530. Out of which 328395 are two wheelers and71964 are four wheelers. The growth of 2-wheeler has been rapid and steadily increasing, especially in comparison to car.

Publictransport systems

Govt. of Orissa constituted a company under Companies Act, 1956 called Bhubaneswar Puri Transport Services Ltd.(BPTSL), which was entrusted with the function of ensuring public bus transportservices in the City of Bhubaneswar, Puri and Khurda.“Dream team sahara” was selected as operator through open bidding process to undertake the operation and maintenance of the buses, provided by the BPTSL for Bhubaneswar, Puri,Khurda& Cuttack and in the process, works as a project partner of BPTSL for operating City Bus Services under Odisha’s first major PPP mode of operation.

Intermediate public transport modes

Auto-rickshaw is most preferred among the para-transit modes. Within BMC area, auto-rickshaws have maximum coverage. The very low dependence on either public or para transit alternatives is a direct outcome of poor coverage of their services. This has forced people at large to rely of private transit alternatives; especially two-wheelers which have low capital cost as well as O&M cost implications.

The deficiency of bus services has led to rapid proliferation of auto-rickshaws. Nearly 8400 auto rickshaws cater to the intra-urban travel demand. The route and fare structureis flexible to commuter demand.

Travel characteristics

The per capita triprate excluding walk, as per DPR for BRTS in Bhubaneswar by Rites in year 2008 was 0.8.

The average trip length for work trips in Bhubaneswar city is 5.55km, whereas education trip length is 2.4km, shopping trip length is 5km.

Study Area

Benchmarking city in urban transport

Study area

In case of Bhubaneswar, BDA is about 419.10 of four administrative areas such as Jatani, Khurdha, BDA rural andBMC. BDA region comprises of four different administrative regions. It will not be feasible to consider the whole region as study area.As shown in the map, the contiguous built-up area is confined to municipal boundary and few adjoining villages adjoining the municipal corporation boundary, is taken as part of the study area.

                                                                  Table 18.1-1Demographics for delineatedregion


Total Area (Sq.Km)

Built up Area (Sq.Km)






Delineated Area




*Provisional Census, 2011 **CDP estimates, 2011

                                                             Map18-1: Study area 

                             Refer Annexure Part B/Annexure – Bhubaneswar / Map 5-1.

Selection of road network for inventory

The total length of road network within study area is 1498 km of this the length of road network within BMC is 915 km ( 864km of surfaced roads, and 52 km ofun-surfaced roads).

Table 18.2-1: Road network Classification

Road Levels

Length (Km)

% Share

Level 1

ARTERIAL” – Formulates the pattern or form of the city”


Primary (Rapid) Transit Routes

In case of Bhubaneswar, Level 1 roads are the roads which takes care of primary traffic movement in and out of the city,

All the NH, SH roads have been considered as Level 1 roads

National Highway and State Highway

Orbital roads that are long and that cut across the city.

Roads, which are helping in forming the shape of the city i.e. ring / radials / Grid form



Level 2


- Formulates patterns by further dissecting level 1 roads / Forms grids – patterns

Long roads (roads having lengths of approximately half or three quarter length to the city size)

Major district roads & Other district roads



Primary Transit Routes

Roads, which are further dissecting level 1 roads and form grids or pattern



Level 3

“Collector” – creates blocks

Roads that connect level 1 and level 2 roads

Roads, that further create smaller grids



Level 4

“Local roads” – Access to the residents

Roads that connects to residential units







                                           * indicates the total length of road network of the study area

For road network inventory, as explained in earlier chapters, the selection of roads will be restricted to 3rd level of roads only, 4th level roads will not be considered, only if they are part of the any bus routes. 2nd step in the selection of the roads for road network inventory was to identify the links with bus routes and merge it with classification of the levels. Based on the public transport network and road classification map 3.2-5 indicates the network selected for the survey. Total length of the network selected for the survey is 140 km; they refer as major roads in the study for all the indicator computation.

                         Road network in BMC

Total road length

915 km

Black topped

563.39 km

Cement concrete

51 km


182 km


67 km


52 km

Selection of public transport routes

As mentioned in the earlier, the criterion behind the selection of particular route was headway.City bus services offers 12 routes; out of which, there are 12 routes are having head ways <=60 minutes. As per the criteria mentioned earlier the reare 8 routes selected for the primary surveys. 

Routes with head ways (minutes) categories

Routes selected for the primary surveys







>10 = 20



>20 = 30



Total routes